Microbiome refers to the collective genomes of microorganisms in a particular environment. Microbiota is the community of microorganisms. There are about 100 trillion microorganisms (most bacteria, but also viruses, fungi, and protozoa) in the human gastrointestinal tract. The microbiome is considered a virtual organ of the body. While the human genome consists of approximately 23,000 genes, the microbiome is a large source of genes encoding more than three million genes that produce thousands of metabolites that replace many of the host's functions, thereby influencing the host's fitness, phenotype, and health. Although it is an inherited component of the gut microbiota, environmental factors related to diet, medications, and anthropometric measurements are the larger determinants of microbiota composition. Intestinal microorganisms are key to many aspects of human health, including immune, metabolic, and neurobehavioral aspects. Lower bacterial diversity was reproducibly observed in subjects with inflammatory bowel disease, psoriatic arthritis, Type 1 diabetes, atopic eczema, celiac disease, obesity, Type 2 diabetes, and arterial stiffness compared to healthy controls. As a result, the diversity of the microbiome appears to be an overall good indicator of a 'healthy gut'. Recent interventional studies, however, suggest that large increases in dietary fiber may temporarily reduce diversity by specifically enriching the fiber-digesting microbes, resulting in a change in composition. Specific foods and diets can affect the abundance of different types of bacteria in the gut, which can affect health. In addition to diet, medication is an important modulator of gut microbiota composition. Numerous scientific studies have confirmed that drugs have a great modifying effect on the composition of the microbiota. When we look at health from a holistic perspective, we can more clearly grasp the importance of a healthy microbiome. Acting on the analysis of microbiota in the solution of the problems experienced as a disease stands before us as the key to an effective life transformation.